Illustrating the Outcomes of Community-Based Research: A Case Study on Working with Faith-Based Institutions

  • James Cresswell Ambrose University
  • Rich Janzen University of Waterloo
  • Joanna Ochocka University of Waterloo
Keywords: functions of community research, community-based research, newcomers, settlement, religious institutions, case study

Abstract

Incoming immigrants to places like Canada tend to be religious and thereby have sympathies counter to prevailing secularizing trends that emerge in research praxis. This paper presents an illustrative case study of Community-Based Research (CBR) that starts from the community to be studied. We illustrate how CBR can be an effective tool for engaging community stakeholders in solving community problems when stakeholders are part of faith-based institutions. This is accomplished by drawing on Ochocka and Janzen (2014) and Janzen et al. (2016), who discuss the hallmarks of CBR that we used to structure a case study with The Salvation Army (TSA). This paper focuses on TSA as a religious institution and how CBR supports TSA’s adjustment to enhance its relationships with a community it finds itself serving: newcomers. We first outline the hallmarks of CBR and show how they are expressed in our case study. Second, we extend Ochocka and Janzen (2014) and Janzen et al. (2016) by focusing on the functions of CBR to illustrate further the outcomes that can emerge from this sort of approach and make recommendations for researching with faith-based institutions. 

Author Biography

James Cresswell, Ambrose University

James (Jim) Cresswell (corresponding author) is a professor at Ambrose University.  His work involves community-based research aimed at using research to support community organizations. Other areas of interest include: poverty; theoretical, historical, and philosophical psychology; cognitive science of religion; and immigration. Email: jim.cresswell@ambrose.edu 

References

Acres, W. (2011). Discourses of Religious Diversity: A Paradox?. The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, 11(1), 193-211.

Bramadat, P. (2014). Don’t ask, don’t tell: Refugee settlement and religion in British Columbia. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 82 (4), 907-937. https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/lfu040

Byrnes, T. A., & Karzenstein, P. J. (2006). Religion in an expanding Europe. Sociologický Časopis, 42(3), 605-608.

Chavis, D.M., Hogge, J.H., McMillan, D.W., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Sense of community through Brunswick’s lens: A first look. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 24-40.

Chirkov, V. (2016). Fundamentals of research on culture and psychology: Theory and methods. New York: Routledge.

Clark, W., & Schellenberg, G. (2006). Who’s Religious? Canadian Social Trends. Catalogue no. 11-008. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Connor, P. (2009). Immigrant religiosity in Canada: Multiple trajectories. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 10(2), 159-175.

Cresswell, J. (2012). Including Social Discourses and Experience in Research on Refugees, Race, & Ethnicity. Discourse & Society, 23(5), 553-575.

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Sage.

Dulak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 237-350.

Elias, M. J. (1987). Establishing enduring prevention programs: Advancing the legacy of Swampscott. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15(5), 539-553. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00929908

Foster-Fishman, P., & Behrens, T. (2007). Systems change reborn: rethinking our theories, methods, and efforts in human services reform and community-based change. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 191-196.

Foster-Fishman, P., Nowell, D., & Yang, H. (2007). Putting the system back into systems change: A framework for understanding and changing organizational and community systems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 197-215.

Hall, B., Tandon, R., & Tremblay, C. (2015). Strengthening community university partnerships: Global perspectives. PRIA and University of Victoria Press.

Halseth, G., Markey, S., Ryser, L., & Manson, D. (2016). Doing Community-Based Research. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Hansen, T. B. (2014). Migration, religion and post-imperial formations. Global Networks, 14(3), 273-290. https://doi.org/10.1111/glob.12059

Howell, M. & Cresswell, J. (2017, June). Meeting the Challenge of Charting Community Development: Opportunities for Intervention & Prevention in a Faith-Based Settlement. Poster presented at the Canadian Psychological Association 78th Annual National Convention. Toronto, Ontario.

Janzen, R., & Ochocka, J. (2020). Assessing excellence in community-based research: Lessons from research with Syrian refugee newcomers. Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement.13(1). https://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/ijcre/article/view/7037

Janzen, R., Brnjas, C., Cresswell, J., & Chapman, M. (2019). Faith and settlement partnerships: Perspectives of community stakeholders. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2019.1658007

Janzen, R., Chapman, M., Reimer, S., & Ochocka, J. (2017). Community-based research and the faith-based campus. The Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning. Special Faith Issue. 3(1), 63-81. https://doi.org/10.15402/esj.v1i1.225

Janzen, R., Stobbe, A., Chapman, M., & Watson, J. (2016). Canadian Christian churches as partners in immigrant settlement and integration. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2015.1123792

Janzen, R., Ochocka, J., & Stobbe, A. (2016). Towards a theory of change for community-based research projects. The Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning. 2(2), 44-64. https://doi.org/10.15402/esj.v2i2.165

Kindon, S., Pain, R. & Kesby, M. (Eds.). (2007). Participatory action research approaches and methods: Connecting people, participation and place. Routledge.

Langfield, M. (2004). Voluntarism, Salvation, and Rescue: British Juvenile Migration to Australia and Canada, 1890–1939. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 32(2), 86-114.

McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(198601)14:1<6::AID-JCOP2290140103>3.0.CO;2-I

Moyles, G. (2017). “Help for Manitoba’s Farmers and Housewives”: The Salvation Army and official immigration agency. Manitoba History, 83, 35-40.

Nagel, C. & Ehrkamp, P. (2017). Policing the borders of church and societal membership: immigration and faith-based communities in the US South. Journal of Territory, Politics, Governance, 5(3), 318-331. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622671.2017.1290545

Nelson, G., Ochocka, J., Griffin, K., & Lord, J. (1998). Nothing about me, without me: Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(6), 881-912.

Nelson, G., Janzen, R., Ochocka, J., & Trainor, J. (2010) Participatory action research and evaluation with mental health self-help initiatives: A theoretical framework. In L. Brown and S. Wituk (Eds.), Mental health self-help: Consumer and family initiatives. Springer.

Nelson, G., d’Ailly, H., Ochocka, J., Janzen, R., Maiter, S., & Jacobson, N. (2014). Planning transformative change for mental health services for diverse cultural-linguistic communities. In G. Nelson, B. Kloos, & J. Ornelas (Eds.), Community psychology and community mental health: Towards transformative change (pp. 177-201). Oxford University Press.

Norman, J. (2011). The fluidity of human capital: Theorizing the relationship between religion and immigration. Method and Theory in the Study of Religion, 23, 48-63. https://doi.org/10.1163/157006811X54706

Ochocka, J., & Janzen, R. (2014). Breathing life into theory: Illustrating of community-based research: hallmarks, functions and phases. Gateways: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, 7, 18-33.

O’Mahony, C., Burns, K., & McDonnell, C. (2014). Community based research: An introductory guide for higher education staff: Fact sheet. Campus Engage/Irish Universities Association.

Polkinghorne, D. (1983). Methodology for human sciences systems of inquiry. State University of New York.

Primavera, J., & Brodsky, A. E. (2004). Introduction to the special issue on the process of community research and action. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3-4). https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000027213.18639.30

Reimer, S., Chapman, M., Janzen, R., Watson, J., & Wilkinson, M. (2016). Christian churches and immigrant support in Canada: An organizational ecology perspective. Review of Religious Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2015.1123792

Schraube, E., & Højholt, C. (2016). Psychology and the conduct of everyday life. Routledge.

Street, R. (2002). Servants together: Salvationist perspectives on ministry. Salvation Army Books.

Tamlin, H., Cresswell, J., & Hoppe, A. (under revised review). Experiencing visions of Canadian church workers: Exploring the mentality fueling systems involved in poverty reduction.

Taylor, M., & Ochocka, J. (2017). Advancing community-based research in Canada. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 8(2), 183-200. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJKBD.2017.10006154

Trickett, E. (2009). Multilevel community-based culturally situated interventions and community impact: An ecological perspective. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(3-4), 257-266.

Published
2021-04-15
How to Cite
Cresswell, J., Janzen, R., & Ochocka, J. (2021). Illustrating the Outcomes of Community-Based Research: A Case Study on Working with Faith-Based Institutions. Engaged Scholar Journal: Community-Engaged Research, Teaching, and Learning, 6(2), 69-87. https://doi.org/10.15402/esj.v6i2.70747